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    Time-longitude section of SST anomalies (5oN-5oS)

    Time series of weekly SST anomalies for the 4 Niño regions

    Time series of weekly SST and Climatology for the 4 Niño
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    Anomalous equatorial depth of the 20oC isotherm

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    • References

    Barnston, A.G., C. F. Ropelewski, 1992: Prediction of ENSO episodes using canonical correlation analysis. J. Climate, 5, 1316-1345.

    Barnston, A.G., M. Chelliah and S.B. Goldenberg, 1997: Documentation of a highly ENSO-related SST region in the equatorial Pacific. Atmosphere-Ocean, 35, 367-383.

    Barnston, A. G., M. H. Glantz, and Y. He, 1999: Predictive skill of statistical and dynamical climate models in SST forecasts during the 1997-98 El Nino episode and the 1998 LNa Nina onset. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80, 217-243.

    Halpert, M. S. and C. F. Ropelewski, 1992: Surface temperature patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 5, 577-593.

    Higgins, R.W., Y. Zhou and H.-K. Kim, 2001: Relationships between El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation: A Climate-Weather Link. NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS 8.

    Higgins, R. W., V. E. Kousky, H.-K. Kim, W. Shi, and D. Unger, 2002: High frequency and trend adjusted composites of United States temperature and precipitation by ENSO phase, NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS No. 10, 22 pp.

    Hoerling, M. P., and A. Kumar. 1997. Why do North American climate anomalies differ from one El Nino event to another? Geophysical Research Letters, 24 (1 May): 1059-1062.

    Hoerling, M. P., and A. Kumar, 1997: Origins of extreme climate states during the 1982-83 ENSO winter. J. Climate, 10, 2859-2870.

    Hoerling, M. P., and A. Kumar, 2000: Understanding and predicting extratropical teleconnections related to ENSO. In El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Multi-scale Variationsnd Global and Regional Impacts, H.F. Diaz and V. Markgraf (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, 57-88.

    Hoerling, M. P., A. Kumar, and T. Xu, 2001: Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO's extreme phases. J. Climate, 14, 1277-1293.

    Kousky, V.E., M.T. Kayano, and I.F.A Cavalcanti, 1984: The Southern Oscillation: Oceanic-atmospheric circulation changes and related rainfall anomalies. Tellus, 36A, 490-504.

    Kousky, V. E. 1997. Warm (El Nino) episode conditions return to the tropical Pacific. Mariners Weather Log 41, no.1 (Spring): 4-7.

    Kousky, V. E. and R. W. Higgins, 2004: An Alert Classifications System for Monitoring and Assessment of the ENSO Cycle, Wea and Forecasting, 22, 353-371

    Kumar, A., and M. P. Hoerling, 1997: Interpretation and implications of observed inter-El Niño variability. J. Climate, 10, 83-91.

    Kumar, A., and M. P. Hoerling, 1998: Annual cycle of Pacific/North American seasonal predictability associated with different phases of ENSO. J. Climate, 11, 3295-3308.

    Kumar, A., A. Barnston, P. Peng, M. P. Hoerling, and L. Goddard, 2000: Changes in the spread of the seasonal mean atmospheric states associated with ENSO. J. Climate, 13, 3139-3151.

    Kumar, A., and M. P. Hoerling, 2003: The nature and causes for the delayed atmospheric response to El Niño. J. Climate, 16, 1391-1403.

    Leetma, Ants. 1989. The interplay of El Nino and La Nina. Oceanus, 32 (Summer) : 30-3434

    Leetmaa, A. 1999: The first El Niño observed and forecasted from start to finish. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80, 111-112.

    Rasmusson, E. M. and T. H. Carpenter, 1982: Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation / El. Nino. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 354-384.

    Rasmusson, E. M., T. H. Carpenter, 1983: The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 517-528.

    Rasmusson, E. M., and J. M. Wallace, 1983: Meteorological aspects of El Nino / Southern Oscillation. Science, 222, 1195-1202.

    Rasmusson, E. M. and K. Mo, 1993: Linkages between 200-mb tropical and extratropical circulation anomalies during the 1986-1989 ENSO cycle. J. Climate, 6, 595-616.

    Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1986: North American precipitation and temperature patterns associated with the El Nino/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 2352-2362.

    Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert ,1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Nino/ Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1606-1626.

    Ropelewski, C.F. and P.D. Jones, 1987: An extension of the Tahiti-Darwin Southern Oscillation Index. Mon. Wea. Rev, 115, 2161-2165.

    Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1989: Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 2, 268-284.

    Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1996: Quantifying Southern Oscillation-precipitation relationships. J. Climate, 9, 1043-1059.

    Xue, Y. and A. Leetmaa, 2000: Forecast of tropical pacific SST and sea level using a Markov model. accepted by Geophys. Res. Lett.

    Xue, Y., A. Leetmaa, and M. Ji, 2000: ENSO prediction with Markov models: the impact of sea level. J. Climate, 13, 849-871.


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